Solar Equipment for Solar Wafer, Solar Cell and Solar Module Production.
Crystec

Crystec Technology Trading GmbH
Solar Equipment

Crystec
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solar   doping   metallization   ARC   a-Si:H   CdTe   CIGS   modules

Equipment for Solar Wafer, Solar Cell and Solar Module Production

A typical silicon solar cell consists of a photoactive p/n junction formed on the surface, a front ohmic contact stripe and fingers, a back ohmic contact that covers the entire back surface, and an antireflection coating on the front surface.

For silicon solar cell production either poly-crystalline or mono-crystalline material is used. Poly-crystalline silicon for photo-voltaic applications is normally produced by casting methods while mono-crystalline silicon is prepared in a Czochralski growing process.

The poly-crystalline or mono-crystalline ingots are cut to wafers. Poly-crystalline material is mostly cut to square wafers, while mono-crystalline material is used to produce round wafers. In many cases square material with rounded edges is prepared from round wafers in order to get a denser packing of the solar cells in the solar module.

Solar cell poly-crystalline sun Solar cell mono-crystalline

Manufacturing of solar cells can be devided in 4 sections:

Manufacturing of the starting material can be done only by the large silicon manufacturers and is therefore not explained on this page in detail. All further manufacturing steps are described below. You can receive more detailed information for many productions steps by following the links in the text..

 

Solar Wafer Manufacturing

Cz crystal growing
  Czochralski crystal growing (mono-crystalline)
and ingot casting (poly-crystalline)
of p-doped, Boron-containing Silicon
Cutting of Columns Pfeil
Cutting of columns
using a wire saw
 
Pfeil Sawing of solar wafers
  Wafer sawing using a wire saw.
A complete block can be cut at a time.
   
  Pfeil  
KOH-etching

Solar Cell Manufacturing

 
Texturing, KOH-etching
for increasing the surface and increasing the light absorption
texturing
Pfeil doping furnace
Phosphorus doping n-doping with phosphorus (POCl3) and diffusion in a diffusion furnace
for formation of the photo diode and p/n-junction
HF-etching Pfeil
PSG-etching with hydrofluoric acid HF
for removal of the surface oxide
PSG-etching
Pfeil PECVD for antireflection coating
PECVD nitride layer Anti reflection coating ARC with Si3N4
in PECVD-equipment
for improving the light incidence angle
printing machine for contact formation Pfeil
Contact formation by printing metal paste on the cell, using a screen printing machine.
On the front side silber fingers are formed while the backside is covered completely with an aluminum layer.
Kontaktierung
Pfeil firing furnace
Thick film firing furnace Firing Furnace for metal film hardening.
   
  Pfeil  
tabbing and stringing

Solar Module Manufacturing

 
Tabbing and stringing solar cell string
Pfeil Layup and bussing
Solarzellenfeld Layup on the glass and interconnecting, bussing
Electric Inspection Pfeil
Electric inspection voltage current characteristic
Pfeil EVA sheet and back sheet loading
  EVA sheet and back sheet loading
Laminator Pfeil
Laminating equipment  
Pfeil Module framing
  Edge taping and module framing
Module packing Pfeil
Testing and Packing  
   

In order to setup a continuous production line, of course a lot of automation equipment is necessary also.
Automation of solar module manufacturing

The company is Crystec can offer many types of machine for this application, new or used. For solar module manufacturing, we can even offer a complete turn-key production line. Please send us your project requests and details!

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✉ 84503 Altoetting, Zinngiesserstr. 7, Germany, ✆ +49 8671 882173
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