Ammonia NH3 cracker, hydrogen generator for the generation of hydrogen H2, forming gas H2/N2
Koyo Thermo Systems

Koyo Thermo Systems Co., Ltd. is represented in Europe by
Crystec Technology Trading GmbH

Crystec
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Ammonia Cracker for the Generation of Forming Gas.

Hydrogen is indispensable for the bright hardening of metals. But, viewed from the standpoint of safety, hydrogen gas is by no means an advantageous atmosphere. Dissociated ammonia atmosphere or forming gas is the only furnace atmosphere that can make up the demerits of hydrogen and function nearly 100% as if it were hydrogen gas. There are cases where forming gas cannot replace pure hydrogen, but such cases are very rare. For almost all applications involved, forming gas atmosphere will answer the purpose.

An ammonia cracker, NH3-Cracker or hydrogen generator is used for the production of forming gas. Hydrogen and Nitrogen are generated in a cost effective way in a volume ratio of 3 : 1 or in a weight ratio of 14 : 3. Capacities from 5m3/h to 60m3/h are available.

The NH3 is coming from bottles or from an ammonia tank. The ammonia gas is pre-heated in a heat exchanger and vaporizer and then cracked in the main furnace unit. The furnace is electrically heated by special LGO heating elements.

ammonia cracker, graphic

The dissociation of ammonia gas NH3 takes place at a temperature of 920°C in the presence of a special nickel catalyst in an electrically heated furnace.
2 NH3 arrow N2 + 3 H2
The cracked gas then passes the heat exchanger for cooling and for pre-heating the incoming gas. This way and in combination with the low power consuming LGO heating elements, it can be made sure that only a minimum of electricity has to be used for the cracking process.

hydrogen, forming gas generator

AM Gas Generator.

Features:

  • Light thermal mass heater: Comparing to conservative type brick furnace, there is lots of reduction in heat-up time, power consumption, foot print.
  • Stable gas generation: Tube type retort integrated in round electrical heater can generate cracking gas stable.
  • Safety feature: Excess temperature protection, over pressure, thermocouple burnt alarm, etc can maintain the system safe.
  • Save foot print, easy operation: Operation switch install on front panel. Insulator got thinner and can realize less foot print.

As a result of complete dissociation into hydrogen and nitrogen, very little undissociated ammonia remains and the dew point temperature of the resulting gas is very low (well below -30°C).

Gas Purifier

As an option and in order to reduce the dew point of the generated forming gas further, a special forming gas purifier is available from Koyo Thermo Systems. Using molecular sieve technology, the dew point of the generated gas can be reduced to less than -65°C. Two adsorber units are working in parallel, one for adsorbing moisture and un-cracked ammonia from the forming gas and the other one is heated for regeneration. Every 6 h the gas flow is changed automatically.

Applications for dissociated ammonia

The forming gas is used in conveyer furnaces and in tube furnaces for anneal processes in a reducing atmosphere, brazing, sintering, deoxidation, and nitrization. You will find more details about these furnaces in our Koyo Thermo Systems product overview.

Further application for forming gas are:

  • Brazing
  • Sintering
  • Deoxidization
  • Nitrization
    Metal anneal:
  • Stainless steel wire anneal
  • Metal powder anneal
  • Bimetal products anneal
  • Hydrogenation of organic compounds
  • Galvanization
  • Production of Forming Gas

Gas Properties

The gas generated by the dissociation of ammonia is forming gas. It consists of 75 Vol% hydrogen and 25 Vol% nitrogen.

Description Ammonia NH3 Hydrogen H2 Nitrogen N2
Molecular Weight

17,03

2,0158

28,0134

Boiling Point (BP) in °C

-33,35

-252,87

-195,8

Liquid Density at BP in kg/m3

682,1

70,0

804,0

Vapor Density at BP in kg/m3

0,8906

1,329

4,613

Density at RT in kg/m3

0,7710

0,0899

1,2506

Heat of Vaporization in kJ/kg

1368,2

451,9

199,2

Solubility in cold water in g/100ml

89,9

-

-

Cp in kJ/kg (1 atm, RT)

2,188

14,2

1,038

Cp/Cv (1 atm, RT)

1,31

1,41

1,40

AM Product types

Several sizes of ammonia crackers are available from Koyo Thermo Systems:

MODEL

Generation capacity
(m3/h H2/N2)

Ammonia consumption
(m3/h NH3)

Power requirement
(kW at 220V)

Dimension
W X D X H (mm)

AM- 5MT

5

2,5

11

1400 X 840 X 1750
AM- 10MT

10

5

16.5

1450 X 840 X 2150
AM- 15MT

15

7,5

18

1450 X 900 X 2700
AM- 20MT

20

10

26

1650 X 900 X 2500
AM- 30MT

30

15

28.5

1650 X 900 X 2700
AM- 40MT

40

20

52

2500 X 1000 X 2500
AM- 60MT

60

30

59.5

2800 X 1000 X 2900

For the production of larger amounts of forming gas, several units can be installed in parallel.

Koyo Thermo Systems and Crystec will be pleased to engineer a cost effective system to satisfy your most demanding and exacting requirements.

Crystec Technology Trading GmbH will be pleased to further discuss details with you.
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